Physicists have proposed a scheme for quantum teleportation of a beam of light, which could have applications such as in quantum computation. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons. Report: Scientists ‘teleport’ two photons Citation: Physicists Propose Scheme for Teleporting Light Beams (2009, July 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-07-physicists-scheme-teleporting.html In their study, Changsuk Noh, M.J. Collett, and H.J. Carmichael from the University of Auckland in New Zealand, along with A. Chia from Griffith University in Queensland, Australia, and Hyunchul Nha from Texas A & M University at Qatar in Dohar, Qatar, have proposed a scheme for teleporting a beam of light, including its fluctuations over time. They hope to show that it’s possible that a physical object (e.g. a quantum field) in one location could emerge at another location in the same quantum state, so that any conceivable measurement would yield the same result in both locations. In contrast, previous teleportation schemes do not seriously consider reproducing certain elements, such as temporal fluctuations.In their proposal, the scientists investigate using a stream of photons that are evenly spaced, or “antibunched.” Detecting the individual photons in a stream that is spaced similar to the photon stream at the input would verify teleportation of the full quantum field. The scientists wanted to find the conditions under which this detection could occur. They discover that squeezing light – a technique used to enhance precision measurements – could allow for teleportation of a quantum photon stream if the squeezing is across a broad bandwidth. “I would say that the greatest significance of our study is at the level of clarifying fundamental principles,” Carmichael told PhysOrg.com. “The original proposal for quantum teleportation is conceptually simple since the quantum state considered is carried by a material object – a particle. Alice and Bob are both provided with similar particles; the state of Alice’s particle is destroyed and acquired by Bob’s. When this idea is transferred to the teleportation of light, one faces a fundamental change, because the state of no light (the vacuum) is also a quantum state, and there is an infinity of ‘objects’ (modes or frequencies of light) in this ‘no light’ state. Every one of these has to be reproduced in the same ‘no light’ state in the teleportation. Our paper clarifies the distinction and shows how to achieve the necessary reproduction.” Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Usually when physicists talk about quantum teleportation, they’re referring to the transfer of quantum states from one particle to another without a physical link. Now, physicists have investigated a slightly different form of teleportation, in which they teleport a quantum field, or an entire beam of light, from one location to another. This kind of “strong” teleportation is required for some quantum information applications, and could lead to the teleportation of quantum images. The scientists note that the squeezing levels are demanding, but further investigations into designing experiments could reveal more optimal methods. One of the biggest challenges for realizing the proposal, as Carmichael explained, is the requirement for high quality, flexible sources of squeeze light.“The technology to realize the scheme is, at the level of fundamentals, already in place; but there are serious challenges in making the technology good enough to carry out an experiment,” he said. “The main step required is to improve the source of squeezed light. Improvements in two directions are needed: first, to achieve higher levels of squeezing, and, second, to squeeze at a high level over a broad bandwidth in the range of frequencies of the input light.”If physicists can overcome these challenges, the ability to transport light beams could lead to many interesting applications. For instance, the researchers suggest that a multi-channel version – in which two or more beams are teleported in parallel – could be used to teleport quantum images. “Comunications systems of the current classical sort send information in a patterned sequence of light pulses – a sequence patterned in time, something like the teeth of a comb with the teeth missing in various places,” Carmichael explained. “Our method of teleportation is able to send such a patterned sequence of pulses…in principle, even when each pulse is in an exotic quantum state or when the state of the whole string of pulses is entangled (a quantum comb whose tooth takes on interrelated ‘quantum colors’). Previous ideas about how to do this require a matched pattern of squeezed light pulses and a matched pattern of measurement pulses, both required to execute the teleportation protocol. Thus, our proposal finds application wherever the transmission of such patterned pulse sequences is needed, e.g., in certain schemes for quantum computation on a register of qubits.”Most importantly, teleporting light beams likely offers yet undiscovered potential. “The greatest significance of our study will therefore hopefully be realized in the minds of readers who come to understand clearly what it means to teleport a quantum field (beam of light), and what the technical challenges are if the full power of this mode of teleportation is to be exploited,” Carmichael said.More information: Changsuk Noh, A. Chia, Hyunchul Nha, M.J. Collett, and H.J. Carmichael. “Quantum Teleportation of the Temporal Fluctuations of Light.” Physical Review Letters 102, 230501 (2009).Copyright 2009 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com.
(PhysOrg.com) — The first compliant products, that will use Sony’s TransferJet technology, will start appearing in products as early as the spring of this year. Its design will enable file swapping, between two devices, by bringing them within approximately 3cm of each other. The TransferJet technology was first demonstrated at the 2008 International CES in January 2008. Sony stated that TransferJet would run at 560Mbps but users would only be able to achieve transfer rates of up to 375Mbps after networking overheads. © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: Sony’s technology highlights- www.sony.net/SonyInfo/technolo … transfer_jet_01.html Image depicts transferring photos between a Sony Cyber-shot DSC-TX7 and Vaio F-Series laptop. Citation: Sony Launches Short-Range Wireless Technology (w/ Video) (2010, February 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-02-sony-short-range-wireless-technology-video.html In the future, Sony hopes TransferJet will replace cables that are used today for file transfers between gadgets. The success of this technology’s is going to depend on large consumer electronics companies who have promise to support it.Sony’s first products that will support TransferJet will be their Vaio F laptop and TX7 and HX5V digital cameras. The products have already been launched in Japan and will hitting international markets from February on. Consortium Established to Develop ‘TransferJet’ Wireless Technology Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Sony’s transceiver IC is the core of TransferJet short-range wireless technology. Transferring data between gadgets is as simple as bringing them together. Sony released the transceiver IC to the merchandise market in November 2009. There are two host interfaces on the transceiver IC. One interface will support PCI and Mini PCI, and other supporting SDIO. The data transfer rate for the PCI and Mini PCI interface (rev 2.3) is approximately 300 Mbit/s and a minimum of 100 Mbit/s for the SDIO interface (V .2.0).Sony is working on a resolution to resolve the slow speeds for SDIO Ver. 2.0, which has a max data transfer rate of 200Mbit/s. With SDIO Ver. 3.0 already standardized, which allows for a maximum data rate to 104Mbyte/s, Sony expects to have TransferJet support SDIO Ver. 3.0 sometime in 2011.
Adding to the cost and complexity of the project would be the actual connecting together of the individual parts, likely with fiber optics and a controller that would have to not only position the nodes on the network, but would have to account for time lags as well, and as much as 20 GB of data per second from each of the telescopes.Like the Large Hadron Collider project, most of those involved in the SKA project expect that if it’s completed as hoped, new discoveries will be made with it that no one as yet can possibly imagine. (PhysOrg.com) — Proving that a lot of little things can go a long way, a group of astronomers have revealed plans to build and install a radio telescope array out of thousands of small inexpensive dishes, spread out over thousands of miles of remote territory. Known as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) the telescope would be the largest of its kind ever created, and would give scientists clues about the creation of the universe, help understand dark matter, or even maybe, perhaps, help receive signals from other intelligent life forms.The SKA, so named because of the collective size of the dishes that would make up the system, would be comprised of over 3000 relatively inexpensive dishes that when connected together, and coordinated with a new, as yet undeveloped supercomputer, would result in a single radio telescope capable of delivering 50 times greater sensitivity than anything currently operating. And if that’s not enough, it would also provide 100 times the resolution.The group, comprised of scientists from over twenty countries, expect costs to be in the neighborhood of $2 billion, with construction starting sometime in the next decade and completion in 2024.A site for the proposed telescope has not yet been chosen, though several countries are vying for selection and the scientific prominence and influx of international cash that would result. The problem is, there are few optimal sites, due to the fact that all of the dishes would have to be situated in a place so remote that no people, cars, phones or other noise making devices would be in the vicinity. Currently, the leading contenders appear to be a block of countries in southern African and Australian and New Zealand. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Artist’s impression of the SKA dishes. Credit: SPDO/TDP/DRAO/Swinburne Astronomy Productions Artist’s impression of the SKA dishes. Credit: SPDO/TDP/DRAO/Swinburne Astronomy Productions Artist’s impression of the three cores of the SKA central region. Citation: Group sets plans for largest radio telescope ever (2011, April 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-group-largest-radio-telescope.html Australia, South Africa, short-listed for giant telescope More information: www.skatelescope.org/ Explore further The telescope would in actuality be comprised of both conventional dish receivers and flat plates that that can be controlled electronically to listen and point to different parts of the spectrum. © 2010 PhysOrg.com
Explore further Citation: Genetically modified cows may one day produce human breast milk (2011, April 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-genetically-cows-human-breast.html (PhysOrg.com) — Researchers in China led by Ning Li, the director of the State Key Laboratories for AgroBiotechnology at the China Agricultural University, have created cow milk similar to human breast milk which could one day replace the need for baby formula. New insights on link between early consumption of cows’ milk and Type-1 diabetes More information: Yang B, Wang J, Tang B, Liu Y, Guo C, et al. (2011) Characterization of Bioactive Recombinant Human Lysozyme Expressed in Milk of Cloned Transgenic Cattle. PLoS ONE 6(3): e17593. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017593 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Currently cow milk is not readily digested and absorbed by human infants, so for those mothers who choose not to breastfeed or who are unable, the only current alternative is formula. Many argue that infant formula is inadequate in providing the full nutrients an infant needs. Human milk contains numerous proteins as well as human lysozyme (HLZ), which is a key in fighting bacteria and boosting an infant’s immune system.With this in mind, Li and his team introduced human lysozyme and other human proteins into the embryos of Holstein cattle and then placed these embryos into surrogate cows. In this recent study, printed in Public Library of Science One, the researchers state that it was cloning technology used to introduce the human genes into the cows DNA. When these genetically modified cows started lactating, the milk they produced contained HLZ as well as other human proteins such as lactoferrin and lactalbumin which also help to boost an infant’s immune system. A purification process was then used to increase the fat content and milk solids, as well as make the milk taste closer to that of human breast milk. It is the researcher’s hope that one day we will be able to purchase this genetically modified cow’s milk in grocery stores.Protestors against the cloning and genetic modification of animals worry about the animal welfare, as well as the possible danger of exposing infants to this genetically modified milk. In one of the experiments in this study, of the 42 calves born, ten died not long after birth and the other six died within months. Health problems are not uncommon in genetically altered animals and they suggest this be taken into consideration before suggesting infants consume this milk. © 2010 PhysOrg.com
The orbit histories of giant planets in one of the simulation with ﬁve initial planets. Image credit: arXiv:1109.2949v1 [astro-ph.EP] (PhysOrg.com) — A new study published on arXiv.org shows that, based on computer simulations, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune may not have been the only gas giants in our solar system. According to David Nesvorny from Colorado’s Southwest Research Institute, our current solar system could never have happened without the existence of a fifth planet. More information: Young Solar System’s Fifth Giant Planet? arXiv:1109.2949v1 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1109.2949AbstractRecent studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system’s giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach resonant orbits with all planets inside 15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk’s dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets, and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common. Explore further Citation: Computer simulation shows Solar System once had an extra planet (2011, September 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-simulation-solar-extra-planet.html © 2011 PhysOrg.com In an effort to determine just how the solar system was formed, Nesvorny performed a series of some 6,000 computer simulations. When using just the four giant planets, every simulation found that they were too large and ended up destroying each other. In the simulations where they did manage to make it in one piece, the rocky planets such as Mars and Venus, were instead destroyed. According to his results, the current solar system structure would have a very low probability of occurring if it started with only four rocky planets and four gas planets.After running these simulations, Nesvorny decided to add a fifth large planet into the mix. With the addition of this large planet, results found that the odds of our current solar system increased significantly.The most successful simulations show that Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and a fifth planet, similar to that of Neptune or Uranus, started out all tightly packed and orbiting some 15 times further from the sun then our planet Earth. The lighter planets are sent out further by Jupiter and Saturn. A close encounter with Jupiter then ejects this mysterious fifth planet out of the solar system.Recent discoveries of free-floating planets in interstellar space show that the ejection of planets could have been common, according to the study. ‘Hot Jupiter’ planets unlikely to have moons This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Science African elephants produce “infrasounds,” which are low-frequency (<20 Hz) vocalizations capable of travelling up to 10 kilometers. Their frequency is usually too low for them to be audible to the human ear.A new study by an international team of voice scientists and biologists has cleared up the mystery of how these infrasounds are produced. The researchers studied the excised larynx of an elephant that had died of natural causes and tried to use it to create infrasounds in the laboratory.The study, led by voice scientist Christian Herbst of the University of Vienna, Austria, aimed to settle the long-standing question of whether elephants make infrasounds in the same way that humans and many other mammals produce sounds, by air flowing across the vocal folds to create vibrations, or through active contractions of the muscles. Scientists can study the process in humans by inserting cameras into the larynx and observing what happens when different sounds are made, but this method is not possible in living animals such as elephants.The research team excised the larynx within a few hours of the elephant’s death in a Berlin zoo, and they froze it and transported it to the University of Vienna’s Department of Cognitive Biology laboratory. They tested the larynx by adjusting the vocal folds to a position used for vocalizations (called a phonatory position) and blowing streams of humidified warm air through it to simulate the action of the elephant’s lungs. The larynx produced infrasounds virtually indistinguishable from those produced by living elephants.The results demonstrated that muscular activity is not required to produce infrasounds, and that they are produced by the flow of air, a type of vocalization known as myoelastic-aerodynamic or flow-driven mode. If elephants produced infrasounds through active muscular contractions, in the same way as a cat’s purr is produced, the larynx would not have produced the sounds with the brain absent. The research does not, however, prove that elephants never use active muscular contractions to produce any sounds.Myoelastic aerodynamic vocalization is the method used in humans (producing frequencies of about 50 to 7,000 Hz) and many other mammals, including echo-locating bats (100,000 Hz or higher). The researchers also found other features of the elephant larynx that matched “nonlinear phenomena” in other species, such as screaming in humans. In nonlinear vocalizations the vibration is chaotic rather than periodic. The paper was published on 3rd August in Science. Researchers solve mystery of long elephant pregnancy Explore further (Phys.org) -- Mammals produce sounds in two ways, either via the flow of air over vocal folds (vocal chords), as in humans and many other mammals, or via active muscular contractions as in the cat’s purr. Until now no one has been sure how elephants produce their lowest tones, but a new study has solved the mystery. More information: How Low Can You Go? Physical Production Mechanism of Elephant Infrasonic Vocalizations, Science, 3 August 2012: Vol. 337 no. 6094 pp. 595-599. DOI: 10.1126/science.1219712ABSTRACTElephants can communicate using sounds below the range of human hearing (“infrasounds” below 20 hertz). It is commonly speculated that these vocalizations are produced in the larynx, either by neurally controlled muscle twitching (as in cat purring) or by flow-induced self-sustained vibrations of the vocal folds (as in human speech and song). We used direct high-speed video observations of an excised elephant larynx to demonstrate flow-induced self-sustained vocal fold vibration in the absence of any neural signals, thus excluding the need for any “purring” mechanism. The observed physical principles of voice production apply to a wide variety of mammals, extending across a remarkably large range of fundamental frequencies and body sizes, spanning more than five orders of magnitude. Citation: Elephants sing low the same way humans do (2012, August 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-elephants-humans.html African Bush Elephant in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Taken by Oliver Wright, via Wikipedia. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2012 Phys.org
Mero, a skilled shipyard worker, is a single father. His son Lorenzo, born from a relationship with an Albanian girl, is his only reason for living. The father dreams that the boy will become a champion boxer, to make up for his own anonymous career as an amateur in the ring.This is why he puts him through a tough training program, teaching him day after day to throw punches and protect himself from life’s low blows. The balance of this relationship is disturbed by the return of Lorenzo’s mother Denisa and by the son’s meeting with young Ana. Mero’s trials are not over and he must face up to pain, his prejudices and the remoteness of Italy’s north east.Catch all this action at the screening of Alza La Testa, directed by Alessandro Angelini. Starring Duccio Camerini, Gabriele Campanelli and Sergio Castellitto, catch this 2009 movie that will be screened in the Capital tomorrow.DETAILAt: Italian Embassy Cultural Centre, 50- E Chandragupta Marg Chanakyapuriwhen: 9 January Timings: 6.30pm Phone: 26871901
In a report to the Indian Home Ministry, the state government said Khan had given a statement to police after his arrest on February 24 that he had paid Rs 5,000 to the alleged rape victim after they had sex twice.According to the report, Khan had also told police that the girl went with him on her free will and had demanded more money from him after the sexual encounters which he had refused. FIR of rape was filed soon after.”It appears on the basis of Khan’s confession, that it was not rape but consensual sex,” a Home Ministry official quoted the Nagaland government report as stating. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJISince his arrest on February 24, Khan was in the Dimpaur central jail. On March 5, a mob broke into the jail, dragged him out, stripped him naked, beat him up, pelted him with stones and dragged him towards the centre of Dimapur town, seven kilometres away. He died from his injuries on the way after which the mob displayed his body from a clock tower.The Nagaland government also said that investigation into the case was still going on and on the basis of medical examination and forensic evidence, the case could be taken forward. Also Read – Health remains key challenge in India’s development: KovindThe medical examination of Khan and alleged rape victim had been conducted after the incident of was reported.Forensic evidences collected from the alleged rape victim and Khan have been sent to the Central Forensic Science Laboratory in Guwahati for obtaining expert opinion.Police investigation was also made at Hotel De Oriental Dream (where accused Khan had alleged taken the victim) and CCTV footage were collected with necessary documents, the official said quoting the report.The earlier report had said that a local Naga youth was allegedly involved in helping Khan in the incident and he too was arrested and sent to Dimapur central jail along with Khan.However, the mob did not touch the Naga youth when Khan was dragged out of the prison on March 5 and lynched.
After Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s talks with his counterpart Sheikh Hasina on Saturday, both sides signed a number of
Washing your hands in hot water may be pointless as scientists have found that cold water is equally effective at killing germs. Researchers also found that washing even for 10 seconds significantly removed bacteria from the hands.”People need to feel comfortable when they are washing their hands but as far as effectiveness, this study shows us that the temperature of the water used did not matter,” said Donald Schaffner, professor at Rutgers University in the US. In the study, high levels of a harmless bacteria were put on the hands of 21 participants multiple times over a six-month period before they were asked to wash their hands in 60-degree, 79-degree or 100-degree water temperatures using 0.5 millilitre (ml), 1 ml or 2 ml volumes of soap. Also Read – Add new books to your shelf”This study may have significant implications towards water energy, since using cold water saves more energy than warm or hot water,” said Schaffner. While the study indicates that there is no difference between the amount of soap used, more work needs to be done to understand exactly how much and what type of soap is needed to removeharmful microbes from hands, researchers said. “This is important because the biggest public health need is to increase hand-washing or hand sanitising by food-service workers and the public before eating, preparing food and after using the restroom,” said Jim Arbogast, co-author of the study published in the Journal of Food Protection. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveA number of infectious diseases can be spread from one person to another by contaminated hands. Washing your hands properly can help prevent the spread of the germs that cause these diseases.These findings are significant, particularly to the restaurant and food industry, because the US Food and Drug Administration issues guidelines every four years, researchers said. Those guidelines currently recommend that plumbing systems at food establishments and restaurants deliver water at over 37 degrees Celsius for hand-washing, they said. Schaffner said the issue of water temperature has been debated for a number of years without enough science to back-up any recommendation to change the policy guidelines or provide proof that water temperature makes a difference in hygiene.